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Enamel preparation

Prior to the actual application, porcelain enamel slip need to be prepared in accordance with the application requirements, such as fineness, set and specific gravity.

The traditional enamel preparation process ("milling") consists of the following seven sequential steps :

  1. weighting of various frits & additions in accordance with the milling formulation
  2. loading ball mills
  3. adding water
  4. milling
  5. discharging ball mills
  6. sieving & magnetic screening of slip
  7. storage

Below some thumbnails of various enamel preparation equipment, such as ball mills, sieves, storage tanks. Please click on the thumbnails to enlarge the pictures.




Nowadays there are also so-called ready-to-use and ready-to-mix enamels available.

These enamels are already weighted & mixed in the appropriated quantities.

Ready-to-use enamels are supplied complete with water, so those enamels can in theory be used immediately. Ready-to-mix enamels require just adding water & mixing prior to use.

The benefits of RTU / RTM enamels are :

  • Lower capital investment for milling equipment
  • Less change for formulation mistakes


Ditmer Trading & Consulting BV assist companies worldwide by providing knowledge and independent advice about porcelain enameling technology, plants & equipment.

Please contact us if you need any further information and/or enamel preparation equipment

Related topics :



Typical mill additions to enamels and their function

Milling Addition Function
Aerosil for set-up
Aluminium oxide matting agent and to increase heat resistance of ground coat
Aluminium hydroxide equivalent to aluminium oxide
Aluminium powder increase heat resistance in ground coat
Antimony trioxide increase adherence of ground coat
Barium chloride for set-up in cover coat
Barium carbonate for set-up in cover coat
Bentonite for set-up
Borax for set-up in ground coat
Boric acid for set-up
Cadmium oxide to stabilise Cd-Se red enamels
Clay provide bubble structure
Cupric chloride for self lustre enamel 1118
EK-1000 for continuous clean enamel
Feldspar for ground coat
Gumst increase filmstrength
Magnesium chloride for set-up cover coat
Magnesium nitrate to increase suspension and to prevent fishscales
Opacifier UV opacifier
Potash for set-up
Potassium choride for set-up cover coat
Potassium nitrate oxidizing agent for aluminium enamels
Quartz to increase firing range and matting agent
Silicic acid for set-up
Silver sand for heat resistant ground coat
Soda ash for set-up in ground coat
Sodium aluminate for set-up in cover coat
Sodium nitrite for set-up in ground coat
Sodium pyrophosphate to decrease set-up
Sodium silico fluoride for set-up cover coat
Tinoxide opacifier
Titanium dioxide opacifier
Trisodium phosphate to prevent rusting in cast iron ground coat
Urea to prevent hairlines in cover coat
Zirconite opacifier
Zircon oxide opacifier